Introduction to Romans – Week 5 – Chapter 11

Introduction to Romans – Week 5 – Chapter 11

1 I ask, then, has God rejected his own people, the nation of Israel? Of course not! I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham and a member of the tribe of Benjamin.

2 No, God has not rejected his own people, whom he chose from the very beginning. Do you realize what the Scriptures say about this? Elijah the prophet complained to God about the people of Israel and said, 

3 “Lord, they have killed your prophets and torn down your altars. I am the only one left, and now they are trying to kill me, too.”[a]

4 And do you remember God’s reply? He said, “No, I have 7,000 others who have never bowed down to Baal!”[b]

5 It is the same today, for a few of the people of Israel[c] have remained faithful because of God’s grace—his undeserved kindness in choosing them.

6 And since it is through God’s kindness, then it is not by their good works. For in that case, God’s grace would not be what it really is—free and undeserved.

7 So this is the situation: Most of the people of Israel have not found the favor of God they are looking for so earnestly. A few have—the ones God has chosen—but the hearts of the rest were hardened. 

8 As the Scriptures say, “God has put them into a deep sleep. To this day he has shut their eyes so they do not see,  and closed their ears so they do not hear.”[d]

9 Likewise, David said, “Let their bountiful table become a snare, a trap that makes them think all is well. Let their blessings cause them to stumble, and let them get what they deserve.

10 Let their eyes go blind so they cannot see, and let their backs be bent forever.”[e]

  •  God’s mercy is on Israel
  • Paul says in verse 7: Most of the people of Israel have not found the favor of God they are looking for so earnestly. A few have—the ones God has chosen—but the hearts of the rest were hardened.  
  • Verse 8 is made up of two passages:  Deuteronomy 29:4 and Isaiah 29:10 outlining two other times of rejection in Israel’s history.
  • Verses 9 and 10 are a quote from David in Psalms 69:22.  

 How can Paul be so very, very clear about the fact that grace does not mix with works as a basis for salvation, but Christians today are still mixed up on the subject? Why is it that many teach that salvation is by grace, but something besides faith is required to consummate the deal? Why is it that many teach that salvation is by grace, but some work must be done in order to preserve that salvation? In light of Paul’s adamant comments about grace and faith not mixing, how can people attempt to modify God’s plan? Just quote ’em Romans 11:5-6. If it’s grace (and it is), then it simply can’t have anything to do with works.

11 Did God’s people stumble and fall beyond recovery? Of course not! They were disobedient, so God made salvation available to the Gentiles. But he wanted his own people to become jealous and claim it for themselves. 

12 Now if the Gentiles were enriched because the people of Israel turned down God’s offer of salvation, think how much greater a blessing the world will share when they finally accept it.

13 I am saying all this especially for you Gentiles. God has appointed me as the apostle to the Gentiles. I stress this, 

14 for I want somehow to make the people of Israel jealous of what you Gentiles have, so I might save some of them. 

15 For since their rejection meant that God offered salvation to the rest of the world, their acceptance will be even more wonderful. It will be life for those who were dead! 

16 And since Abraham and the other patriarchs were holy, their descendants will also be holy—just as the entire batch of dough is holy because the portion given as an offering is holy. For if the roots of the tree are holy, the branches will be, too.

17 But some of these branches from Abraham’s tree—some of the people of Israel—have been broken off. And you Gentiles, who were branches from a wild olive tree, have been grafted in. So now you also receive the blessing God has promised Abraham and his children, sharing in the rich nourishment from the root of God’s special olive tree. 

18 But you must not brag about being grafted in to replace the branches that were broken off. You are just a branch, not the root.

19 “Well,” you may say, “those branches were broken off to make room for me.” 

20 Yes, but remember—those branches were broken off because they didn’t believe in Christ, and you are there because you do believe. So don’t think highly of yourself, but fear what could happen. 

21 For if God did not spare the original branches, he won’t[a] spare you either.

22 Notice how God is both kind and severe. He is severe toward those who disobeyed, but kind to you if you continue to trust in his kindness. But if you stop trusting, you also will be cut off. 

23 And if the people of Israel turn from their unbelief, they will be grafted in again, for God has the power to graft them back into the tree. 

24 You, by nature, were a branch cut from a wild olive tree. So if God was willing to do something contrary to nature by grafting you into his cultivated tree, he will be far more eager to graft the original branches back into the tree where they belong.

  • Horticulture lesson:  Grafting is a  horticultural technique used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant.  
  • Paul is using the analogy of two olive trees, one wild and one cultivated.  The “wild” being the non-believers while the “cultivated” refers to God’s tree, the believers of Jesus Christ, and the saved.  

Taken from Charles Ryrie (The Ryrie Study Bible):

When Israel rejected Jesus Christ, the nation lost her favored position before God, and the gospel was then preached also to Gentiles. Hopefully the Jews would become jealous and be saved (v. 11). But the casting off is only temporary. When the Lord returns, the Jewish people will be regathered, judged, restored to favor, and redeemed (v. 26). This will be for them life from the dead. The olive tree is the place of privilege that was first occupied by the natural branches (the Jews). The wild branches are Gentiles who, because of the unbelief of Israel, now occupy the place of privilege. The root of the tree is the Abrahamic covenant that promised 

blessing to both Jew and Gentile through Christ.

  • Paul emphasizes that it’s not too late for the Jews to turn to Christ and accept – thus being grafted back in themselves.   

25 I want you to understand this mystery, dear brothers and sisters,[a] so that you will not feel proud about yourselves. Some of the people of Israel have hard hearts, but this will last only until the full number of Gentiles comes to Christ. 

26 And so all Israel will be saved. As the Scriptures say, “The one who rescues will come from Jerusalem, and he will turn Israel away from ungodliness.

  • Verse 25 addresses how long this rejection will last
  • What happens when this “fullness” takes place?  all Israel shall be saved.
  • The “fullness” of the Gentiles comes after the end of the battle of Armegeddon in Revelation 19:11-21 where by only the saved will inhabit the earth and the Messiah will reign over Israel and the world. 
  • This fulfills the Davidic Covenant

27  And this is my covenant with them, that I will take away their sins.”[a]

28 Many of the people of Israel are now enemies of the Good News, and this benefits you Gentiles. Yet they are still the people he loves because he chose their ancestors Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 

29 For God’s gifts and his call can never be withdrawn.

  •  A promise is still a promise
  • God made a promise to Israel, and even though they continue to reject the gospel, God made a “covenant” to them anyway.  
  • What is the promise God made to Israel?  
  •  When God says he will do something, he cannot fail to do it. He promised to restore Israel; he cannot fail to do so. So, let’s be clear here about the fulfillment of this promise God made to Israel: God promised to restore the throne of David. It just so happens that this prophecy will be fulfilled at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.

30 Once, you Gentiles were rebels against God, but when the people of Israel rebelled against him, God was merciful to you instead. 

31 Now they are the rebels, and God’s mercy has come to you so that they, too, will share[a] in God’s mercy. 

32 For God has imprisoned everyone in disobedience so he could have mercy on everyone.

33 Oh, how great are God’s riches and wisdom and knowledge! How impossible it is for us to understand his decisions and his ways!

34 For who can know the Lord’s thoughts? Who knows enough to give him advice?[b]

35  And who has given him so much that he needs to pay it back?[c]

36 For everything comes from him and exists by his power and is intended for his glory. All glory to him forever! Amen.

  • Role reversal! The gentiles have not always favored by God
  • Coming out of tribulation, who will the righteous be? Jew or Gentile?
  • The millennium will not be inhabited by only Jewish people, but by all the righteous coming out of the tribulation, Jew or Gentile.

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